Thursday, 25 February 2016

Fantastic voyage: Research: How bacteria becomes resistant to antibiotics ?

  • RNA means:
Ribonucleic acid, a nucleic acid present in all living cells. It principal role to act as a carrying instructions  from DNA for controlling the synthesis of proteins, although in some viruses RNA rather than DNA carries the genetic information.  

  • Development of resistance  - Higher tier
The main step in the development of resistance are :
  1. Antibiotics kill individual pathogens of the non resistant strain
  2. Resistant individual pathogens survive and reproduce
  3. The population of the resistant pathogens increases.

The rate of development of resistant of bacteria can be slowed down. One way to do this is to avoid using antibiotics for infections that are not serious, such as mild throat infections. 

  • As you might think bacterial infections are caused by bacteria, and viral infections are caused by viruses. Perhaps the most important distinction between bacteria and viruses is that antibiotic drugs usually kill bacteria, but they can't effective against viruses. 

Giving antibiotic for virus do not work and can resistance if over used but GP are sometimes under pressure by patient to hand over antibiotic.


BBC (2014) GCSE Bitesize: Antibiotic resistance. Available at:
(Accessed 25 February 2016)

Bacterial vs Viral infections: How do they differ? What's the difference between a bacterial infection and a viral infection? (2014) Mayoclinic: Available at:
( Accessed 25 February 2016)

CUTTING EDGES : Duel (1971) Film Review

Figure 1- Film poster

Duel (1971) was directed by Steven Spielberg is an action, mystery and thriller film which also a TV film. Spielberg's first feature film shows a tense, relentless tale, of two vehicles, one a cars and the other huge truck. It is about a mysterious truck driver which decided to chase the driver of  a car played by Dennis Weaver, down for no apparent reason. The director does a stunning job of making the  vehicles the focus of  the film as we never fully see the truck driver. He only can be noticed by his arm and feet here and there appearing in the shot

Figure 2 -Still image

The story is based on an California businessman set out on a car trip also happens to pass a certain truck on a two-lane road. The truck however, which seems to have a mind  of its own, clearly seen wants revenge and spends the rest of the journey getting the driver.

Figure 3 - The last scene

The last scene of Duel (1971)  along with the truck screams sound effect was used again by Spielberg at the end of Jaws (1975). It say a lot about the connection of both films and  'the original 'scream' sounds effect was influenced from taken the horror classic film of  Creature of the Black Lagoon (1954).' ( YouTube 17/07/2014)

Figure 4 - David Mann in a Chuck’s Café

“David Mann is a man trapped: by the intrusive world around him, in a potentially loveless marriage, and in the pressure and responsibilities of a man just trying to make an honest living to care for those he is responsible for. Worse, he’ll soon have another random adversary breathing heavily down his neck, one that’ll make all of his other pressures seem like child’s play.” (Schober 2015)

In an early scene the viewer learns that David Mann has difficulties in his married life, this is shown through a telephone call. (Figure 4) sees that the character  David Mann is stressed out further in the chuck café  because he is trying to find out who is the driver of the truck is . When he spies on the truck driver in the chuck café that shows a few men who looks like a cowboy and any could be the truck driver.


Editors, T. (2014) Book excerpt: Steven Spielberg and duel: The making of a film career | Balder and dash. Available at: (Accessed: 14 February 2016).

Schober, A. (2015) Steven Spielberg’s duel (1971) and the road to interpretation: Steven Spielberg and duel: The making of a film career by Steven Awalt. Available at: (Accessed: 14 February)

The Devil on Wheels (2014) Duel truck scream. Available at: (Accessed: 23 February 2016).

Maslin, J. (1983) Movie review - duel - ’SPIELBERG’S ‘DUEL,’ FOUR-WHEEL COMBAT. Available at:
(Accessed: 7 February 2016).

Illustration List:

Figure 1 - Film poster
( Accessed on 7 February 2016)

Figure 2- Still image
(Accessed on 7 February 2016)

Figure 3- The last scene
(Accessed on 7 February 2016)

Figure 4- David Mann in a Chuck's café
(Accessed on 24 February 2016)

FANTASTIC VOYAGE: Bacteria Silhouette Thumbnail Drawing 1-10

Fatastic Voyage: Target Audience


Tuesday, 23 February 2016

Fantastic Voyage: Initial Research

Bacteria becoming resistant to antibiotics


HIV Replication 3D Medical Animation

HIV life cycle: How HIV infects a cell and replicates itself using reverse transcriptase

Saturday, 13 February 2016

CUTTING EDGES: 'The Birds' (1963) Film Review

Figure 1- Film poster
The Bird (1963)  was directed and produced by Alfred Hitchcock and based on the story by Daphne du Maurier. The film  has a several genres made up of comedy, romance and horror which works alongside the bizarre 'attack the birds' story. The film is about one of the most disturbing sequences in cinematic history a women tiptoes throughout a house in three staccato shots. (Sooke 2015)  She discover the bloody corpse of its occupant on the bed, his eyes sockets two black holes  dripping with gore.

"The scene is just one of several grisly moments in Alfred Hitchcock's peerless horror flick, The Birds, made three years after his scorching success with Psycho." (Sooke 2015)

Figure 2- Bird Horde
They make sound rather than music and the sound effects of the birds 'crashes quite literally into the inhabitants of Bodega Bay' (Scovell 2014). The sound is very important to create atmosphere because it was difficult to film a large number of birds attacking a town. In the scene where birds attack the residents of the town.(Figure3) 'the sound builds and builds again without ever reaching a crescendo in the end it simply dies away leaving unease and expectation in its wake'. (Scovell 2014)

"The Birds is a perfect showcase of this as well as an innovative experiment with new sound technology, more associated with the avant-garde than Hollywood composition." (Scovell 2014)

Figure 3 - Crows Attack the Students

This film is interesting because of the attack at the school that shows all the crows gattered around in the playground area next to the school. It show that how the crows attacks the students while their running away from the crows. It makes the viewer wonder how the shot was made?


Sooke, A. (2015) The birds, review: ‘Disturbing’. Available at: (Accessed: 26 January 2016).

Scovell, A. (2014) Sounds of the birds (1963) - Alfred Hitchcock. Available at:
(Accessed:26 January 2016)

Matthews, H. (2012) The birds (1963) – movie review. Available at: (Accessed: 26 January 2016).

Illustration List:

Figure 1- Film poster ( Accessed on 26 January 2016)

Figure 2 - Bird Horde ( Accessed on 26 January 2016)

Figure 3-  Crows Attack the Student (Accessed on 13 February 2016)

Character Workshop : Perspective Grid

Character Workshop: Basic Shapes and Storyboard